+++ Earlier this year I stumbled upon a video of a 911 GT3 prototype that lacked the typical, for the model, massive rear wing. At the time, I speculated that the car was the upcoming GT3 Touring Package, and now came across yet another test mule that fits the same description. Unlike others, this one featured the standard rear spoiler of the regular 911 from the latest 992 generation. It also sports a new rear diffuser and lacks the GT3 air vents behind the rear window for engine cooling. That said, it does feature other typical GT3 identification marks such as the center lock wheels, oversized brakes, and central double exhaust pipes. This leads me to believe Porsche has already started working on the new 992-based GT3 Touring Package much earlier in the model’s life cycle than it did with the 991.2-based version. Given the absence of interior photos, I can’t tell if this prototype features a manual transmission like its predecessor, but I sure hope it does, even as an option. In any case, the engine will still be a naturally aspirated flat-six, in all likelihood displacing 4.0 liters. Power should increase compared to the previous 911 GT3, with some reports talking of 530 hp, which should be more than enough to satisfy prospective customers. Logically, the production car will launch after the “regular” 911 GT3 that is expected to make its debut at the Frankfurt Motor Show next month, which means some time in 2020. +++

+++ BMW will preview the next-generation 4-Series with the launch of a model dubbed the Concept 4 Series at September’s Frankfurt Auto Show. The new 4-Series has been spied testing on multiple occasions in recent months and was expected to be unveiled before the end of the year. Instead, this report claims that it will be previewed by the Concept 4 Series ahead of a reveal sometime in 2020. BMW is no stranger to previewing its forthcoming production models with concepts and did just that with the X7 in late 2017 thanks to the launch of the Concept X7 iPerformance. BMW also previewed the previous-generation 4-Series with a show car dubbed the BMW Concept 4 Series Coupe. Limited details about the new concept are known but it is claimed that an enlarged front kidney grille will differentiate it from the 3-Series sedan. Depending on your tastes, this is either good news or bad news but it does promise to give the new 4-Series a unique look, something which can’t be said about the old model that looked virtually identical to its 3-Series sibling but with two fewer doors in coupe guise. The production-ready 4-Series is expected to be sold in Coupe, Convertible, and Gran Coupe configurations that will receive various engine and transmission options from the latest 3-Series. Consequently, there will be a number of 4- and 6-cylinder turbocharged petrol and diesel engines on offer. A plug-in hybrid will also be available. The range will continue to be topped out by the M4, receiving the same redesigned 3.0-liter twin-turbocharged inline-6 engine as the forthcoming M3 and currently used by the BMW X3 M and X4 M. +++

+++ The annual Woodward Dream Cruise is lousy with Corvettes of every age this week. Rarer is a sighting of the 2020 CHEVROLET CORVETTE Stingray with its mid-engine mount since the ones on the road are still preproduction. There, Ed Piatek, the car’s chief engineer, said that in the future, more powerful variants can be expected. The base Stingray has a pushrod 6.2-liter small-block V8 engine. The updated LT2 makes 490 hp; the performance exhaust with the Z51 package bumps that up to 495 hp. It has an 8-speed dual-clutch transmission; there’s no manual. Piatek won’t talk specifics about future superchargers, Z06, ZR1s, or other mouthwatering topics. But that is the natural progression, and Corvette is not about to change past practices just because it moved the engine behind the driver. “The Corvette has got a history of different levels of performance so stay tuned”, Piatek said. He is excited about the launch of the base car (it’s been more than 60 years since GM started studying the physics of biasing an engine’s weight toward the rear axle in a research vehicle) and he is equally excited about the potential that C8 affords. The 7th generation C7 was tapped out; it had reached its maximum potential. C8 blows the barn doors wide open again. “We can certainly use horsepower more efficiently now with this configuration than we did with the previous generation. So that’s an exciting proposition”, Piatek said. The move gives the new Corvette more bandwidth. “That’s the perfect word. The opportunity is super exciting. If you look at the current generation car with 460 hp and the 0-100 time, you can add 300 hp to that number and the 0-100 time barely moves”, Piatek said. “This car, we already start with a really low 0-100 time but with 20 % more of the mass on the rear axle and a wider wheel-tire package in the rear, the opportunities to do really, really, high-performance cars is there”. Does he have any concerns about C8 maxing out? “It’s a long long way,” said the engineer who is clearly relishing how much room the latest Corvette has to grow. Which is saying something, given that the outgoing Corvette ZR1 with the LT5 supercharged 6.2-liter V8 is rated at 755 hp. The Eaton supercharger for the 2019 ZR1 is 2.9 inches taller than the blowers that were in the 2009 ZR1 or the 2015 Z06. Built in Bowling Green, Kentucky, the 2020 Chevrolet Corvette will start at $59,995 when it goes on sale early next year, with lots of room to grow pricewise, as well. +++

+++ U.S. lawmakers and European safety regulators are considering rules that could mandate CHILD PRESENCE DETECTION systems aimed at avoiding hot-car deaths of unattended children. That has suppliers scrambling to develop new systems for automakers, according to interviews with several high-tech suppliers at a recent industry conference. “Everybody is looking at this”, said Raviv Melamed, CEO of the Israeli firm Vayyar Imaging. “The moment you have regulation, things are going to move fast”, Melamed told. “The timelines are very, very close”. Vayyar is one of several vehicle technology suppliers working on child presence systems, as well as other forms of driver and occupant monitoring. Such features already were attracting interest from consumers as vehicles take on more automatic safety tasks. But the prospect of new regulation for the technology is speeding up detection system development, according to interviews with suppliers here. The closest deadline comes from the European New Car Assessment Program, popularly known as Euro NCAP, which issues crash-test ratings of up to 5 stars. Euro NCAP announced that starting in 2022, it will begin awarding rating points for child presence detection, “which can detect a child left alone in a car and alert the owner and/or the emergency services, to avoid heatstroke fatalities”. That plan is motivating automakers to seek solutions for the hot-car problem, said Liat Rostock, marketing vice president of Eyesight Technologies, based in Herzliya, Israel. “We are starting to see demand” from automakers, Rostock confirmed. There is also legislation for the technology currently before the U.S. Congress. The most recent is a bipartisan bill filed July 1 in the U.S. House by Representative Jan Schakowsky, a Democrat from Illinois, Representative Tim Ryan, a Democrat from Ohio, and Representative Peter King, a Republican from New York, called the Helping Overcome Trauma for Children Alone in Rear Seats Act. A U.S. Senate version was filed in May. Some automakers already offer features aimed at reducing the likelihood that someone could accidentally leave a child unattended in a back seat. General Motors was an early mover, introducing what it calls Rear Seat Reminder in 2016 with the 2017 modelyear GMC Acadia, and then adding it to a long list of other models for 2017 and 2018. The GM system is triggered when a rear door is opened and shut close to the time the car is started or while the car is running. The next time the car is shut off, the system sounds a chime and displays a message in the driver information center that reads “Rear Seat Reminder / Look in Rear Seat”. Nissan North America added what it calls Rear Door Alert in 2017, starting with the 2018 Nissan Pathfinder. It plans to roll out the technology to all of its 4-door models by the 2022 model year. Nissan’s version also is activated by use of the back door. Besides a message in the instrument panel, Rear Door Alert honks the horn. Hyundai America offers an optional feature it calls Rear Occupant Alert, starting on its 2019 model year Santa Fe and 2020 Palisade. It uses “door logic” like GM and Nissan, but adds ultrasonic sensors in the vehicle’s headliner to detect movement in the rear seats. It also sends the driver a text message if there is no response to visual or audio alerts. In the mushrooming Israeli auto technology sector, where some companies have roots in national defense and advanced security industries, still-more sophisticated systems are now in development. Instead of relying on door sensors, newer approaches incorporate visual or radar-type sensors in the front-seat headliner that detect the presence of a person in the back seat. The sensors are so precise they can identify an occupant by detecting a heartbeat. That will mean the safety system is aware of a person’s presence even if their face is not visible, for instance when a baby is quietly sleeping in a rear-facing child seat. Ryan told that the 2019 House bill doesn’t tell automakers what technology to use, but its language has been updated to reflect the newer technologies. The bill specifically calls for a system “to detect the presence of an occupant”, as opposed to an alert that would simply direct the driver to check the back seat. Tel Aviv-based Guardian Optical Technologies was founded in 2015 specifically to tackle hot-car deaths, said CEO Gil Dotan. The prospect of regulatory mandate is helping Guardian reach potential customers. Its technology uses an optical sensor that detects tiny movements (as small as one-millionth of a meter) and which are sensitive enough to pick up an infant’s heartbeat. In the company’s earlier days, Dotan told, it was a “the naive young team” who assumed automakers would automatically embrace the technology. “Nowadays that’s changed”, he said of automaker interest. “Many out there understand this is a problem and they are interested in doing something about it”. +++ 

+++ According to FERRARI boss John Elkann, the Italian carmaker will expand its lineup of grand touring models, but won’t look to chase its rivals in terms of sales volume. During his visit to Pebble Beach for the annual Concours d’Elegance, Elkann also hinted that Ferrari, best known for high-performance supercars, will unveil a new GT car this upcoming November. Ferrari have already gone on record saying that by 2022, about 40 % of their sales could come from GT models, as opposed to the 32 % registered now. There’s also a plan in place to expand revenue to €5 billion by 2022. One eagerly anticipated model is the Purosangue SUV, which Ferrari will unleash directly at the Lamborghini Urus and to some extent, the Porsche Cayenne Coupe too. While such a move is expected to boost sales considerably, Elkann says that his company isn’t looking to move as much volume as Porsche. +++ 

+++ John Elkann reiterated that FIAT CHRYSLER AUTOMOBILES (FCA) remains open to opportunities to join forces with other carmakers, but is positioned to remain independent. Earlier this year, FCA proposed a merger with Renault which ended up falling through after the French government (Renault’s biggest shareholder) intervened, forcing Elkann to withdraw the offer. +++

+++ The long-awaited M2 CS will allegedly celebrate its global premiere at the LA Auto Show in November. BMW has been working on its hardcore M2 for quite some time. The M2 CS will be powered by BMW’s twin-turbo 3.0-liter S55 inline-6 also used by the M3 and M4 and, then, the M2 Competition. For the occasion, Munich’s engineers will up output to 450 hp, giving it a 40 hp edge over the M2 Competition. The CS will also be lighter than the Competition thanks to the liberal use of carbon fiber on the roof, front splitter, hood, rear spoiler, rear diffuser and wing mirrors. The lightweight material will also be featured throughout the cabin, including the center console, door handles and seats. Those interested in the driver-focused M2 CS will be pleased to know that it will be offered with both a 6-speed manual and a 7-speed dual-clutch transmission. The latterwill help launch the car off the line and to 100 km/h in approximately 4.0 seconds, while the manual should be a couple of tenths slower. Unlike the standard M2, which is a regular production model, the CS will reportedly be a limited run of 2,200 units. +++ 

+++ Automatics and semi-auto dual-clutch transmissions may be technically brilliant but there’s still plenty of space left in the market for MANUAL GEARBOXES , and it’s not only petrolheads who think so. Volkswagen recently announced its new MQ281 manual transmission, which will supersede the MQ250 and replace the MQ350 in some applications. Manual gearboxes suit low-cost, entry-level cars because they are cheaper to make than autos and consume less energy from the engine. They’re efficient because they don’t have any internal hydraulics or other components like clutches or actuators to consume power and they weigh less. The full name of VW’s new gearbox is MQ281- 6F, with ‘6’ for six-speed and ‘F’ for frontwheel drive. It has been specifically designed to suit the trend of downsizing engines for fuel efficiency and turbocharging them to replace the power and torque that disappeared with the lost capacity. Thanks to the turbocharging, downsized engines can produce higher torque at lower revs. They also run slower at the top end to avoid the greater friction losses at high revs (down-speeding). Because of that, the gearing has to be tailored to suit them. The MQ281 will equip smaller cars in the VW family, from the Polo to the Tiguan, as well as others wearing Audi, Skoda and Seat badges. So the gearbox can cope with cars of different sizes and weights and it has a decent torque capacity of 340 Nm, which relates not just to engine torque but also the weight of the vehicle it’s fitted to and the job it’s doing. A wide ratio spread of 7.89 gives a low first gear to pull away easily and a high enough 6th to make top speed at lower revs. Front-wheel-drive gearboxes generally pose a design challenge because, unlike an in-line gearbox driving the rear wheels, they normally fit on the end of an engine mounted east-west across the width of the engine bay. The MQ281 is particularly compact so it can be mated to an external electric motor to create a hybrid drive. Inside the gearbox, the gubbins is fairly familiar. There are 2 shafts mounted one on top of the other with the centres just 80 mm apart. The uppermost one is the input shaft connected to the engine via the clutch and has gears and synchronisers for ratios 3 to 6. The lower one is the output shaft driving the wheels via the final drive. To help squeeze everything in, the output shaft also carries the gears and synchronisers for first and second gears. To ease gear engagement on the first two gears, they have multi-cone steel and carbon synchronisers. Single cones are fine for the higher ratios. The lubrication system has a few trick details in it, too, scooping up fluid and directing it through the hollow shafts and to the sixth gear, which sits on the end of the gear cluster and can otherwise suffer oil starvation during cornering. Effective lubrication reduces wear and minimises friction to get maximum efficiency. VW reckons the MQ281 can save 5 g/km CO2, depending on the car it’s fitted to, and that includes the down-speeding element of the engine. That’s a decent amount when every gram counts and it’s not to be sniffed at. The MQ281 can accommodate a hybrid electric drive motor fitted adjacent to it in the engine bay using an optional power take-off unit fitted to the gearbox casing. This makes a ‘mild hybrid plus’, with a beefier electric motor than a typical MHEV, able to deliver more torque and provide more effective regenerative braking. The modular design means the ’box can take a range of gear sets to suit different cars. +++ 

+++ We’ve seen that PORSCHE is already testing the facelifted 2020 Panamera but the German company is also working on an intriguing version of the Panamera Turbo. The most obvious change over the stock Panamera Turbo is the massive rear spoiler with a Gurney flap, but the prototype also features 2 extra winglets on each side of the front bumper and a lower front splitter. The package also includes huge ceramic brakes, hinting at some serious performance. The winglets and Gurney flap allow Porsche to test with more downforce without revealing the real look of the bigger spoilers. Porsche is testing an extreme version of the current Panamera Turbo with around 820 hp. It could be a track-focused, special edition model that would allow the second-generation Panamera to go out with a bang when production ends sometime in 2022. For now, the project is at a very early stage of development and the team is testing to see how far they can push the envelope with the Panamera Turbo. At the moment, the most powerful Panamera on sale is the Panamera Turbo S E-Hybrid which delivers a total of 680 hp and 850 Nm. The plug-in hybrid model is able to sprint from 0 to 100 km/h in 3.4 seconds and hit a top speed of top speed of 310 km/h. Those are insane performance figures for a car this size and yet Porsche wants more. It probably wouldn’t be Porsche if it didn’t. +++ 

+++ Ever get the feeling that some corporations charge motorists too much for car-related products? That their PROFIT MARGINS are obscenely high? That they’d still be fabulously profitable, even if they seriously slashed their retail prices? For emergency and other reasons, the mobile phone is essential for today’s car user, and the iPhone is among the best. But isn’t Apple taking the you know what by amassing an annual profit of almost $60 billion from its customers? That’s more than $1 billion a week during its last financial year. Archrival Samsung Electronics (not to be confused with Samsung’s car arm and other divisions) is a tad less flush than Apple, settling for $40 billion per annum. Some banks made more than $30 billion apiece over the same 12-month period. Oil giants such as Shell and Exxon Mobil each enjoyed annual profits of $20 billion-plus. All these firms are close to the top of the profitability premier league. But they’re comparative paupers alongside the little oil and gas outfit called Saudi Aramco. It occupies the top slot in the global table with a 2018 profit of $110 billion, which was almost 50 % up on 2017. Nice work if you can get it. This translates into a $2 billion weekly profit, which is more than some leading vehicle firms earn in a year. Mazda and its world-beating MX-5 couldn’t even make a $600 million profit for the whole of 2018. Despite the fact that Kia has lately established itself as a credible, internationally recognised car designer and maker, it made a global profit of only $980 million last year. Subaru had to settle for $1.3 billion, while Hyundai is on almost the same sum. Suzuki, the reigning World Urban Car champ, made $1.5 billion. Major international brands are often making only a fraction of what oil, mobile phone folk and bankers generate. If profits aren’t sufficiently high, there’s not enough wedge swimming around to invest in future models and tech. In view of the colossal investments most car giants put in, they’re just not getting enough back. Toyota is an exception to this, with an annual figure of $17 billion, which just let the Japanese giant creep into the global top 20 for profitability. The VW Group, on $13.5 billion, is in the top 30. But everyone else is below the $10 billion threshold. BMW and Mercedes still can’t break the $9 billion barrier, GM is on $7.5 billion, while Honda made nearly $6 billion. Ford, Peugeot and Renault are all in sub-$4 billion (£3.3bn) territory. Not bad, but not great and, on the face of it, not enough for huge firms employing thousands of workers and contractors. Scandal-hit Nissan suffered an almost 60 % plummet in profits last year to less than $3 billion. Each major car firm must invest billions, possibly scores of billions, in alternatively fuelled and/or self-driving vehicles for the near future. They can’t do that unless they’re healthily profitable. I’m especially worried about Mazda, because its $572million annual profit isn’t nearly enough to take it forward. Toyota and Mazda already enjoy a sort of ‘partner’ relationship, but a full-blown marriage is beginning to look like a necessity. What better place for the wedding of the year than this autumn at the Tokyo Motor Show? +++ 

+++ RIVIAN has revealed that its upcoming all-electric R1S SUV will be sold with a number of different roof configurations depending on customer preference. Rivian said its SUV will be available with an electrochromic glass roof that turns from opaque to transparent at the touch of a button, a fixed glass panel as a two-piece removable composite roof, and a standard fixed roof. Interestingly, it made no mention of a tilting or sliding sunroof, a feature one may expect in a premium SUV. However, the presence of an electrochromic glass roof is, probably, a great alternative. The 2-piece removable composite roof also sounds rather intriguing and could offer a similar open-air driving experience to the Jeep Wrangler. Patents filed by Rivian last year revealed that both the company’s R1S and R1T pickup truck will also receive a feature called ‘Tank Turn’ that will allow them to spin around on the spot thanks to the independent electric motors at each wheel. In June, we also discovered that Rivian’s upcoming models will support vehicle-to-vehicle charging. Both EVs will be sold in a number of configurations. Entry-level models will use a 105 kWh battery pack with a range of about 390 km. A 135 kWh battery will also be available and good for a range of 500 km, while top-end models will have a massive 180 kWh battery pack. +++ 

+++ The new VOLKSWAGEN GOLF is waiting in the wings and it’s got a stiff mission statement as it bids to evolve the model’s appeal in the face of increased competition from electric wannabes such as the all-singing-and-dancing ID 3 electric sibling. We’ll see the new ID3 launched at this autumn’s Frankfurt motor show; Wolfsburg is therefore delaying the Golf launch until 2020, to give its 2 most important model ranges some fresh air in which to breathe. The footprint of the new Golf is relatively unchanged, with a 2630 mm wheelbase. That is stretched slightly with a 50 mm growth spurt in the forthcoming Golf Variant, to free up more space for limbs and luggage. The big engineering news is the adoption of mild hybrid tech across much of the range, which is underpinned by the latest MQB hardware. All base models will be front-wheel drive and there will be 24 volt and 48 volt mild and plug-in hybrids available: 1.0 TSI (Least potent model gets 95 hp 1.0-litre triple), 1.5 TSI  Regular petrol models have choice of 130 hp and 150 hp, 1.4 TSI PHEVs  Plug-in models are rated at 150 hp or 180 hp, 2.0 TDI diesel (116 hp or 150 hp for those who insist on diesel). The new Golf range will also usher in a step change in semi-autonomous driving skills: signals from cameras, radar and other sensors will allow the new hatchback to do much self-driving, whether parking in a bay or braking to avoid a collision. It’s also highly connected: expect apps to let you find your parked car, plan your journey and set your preferences so your Golf is pre-programmed with your favourite settings when you climb onboard. Volkswagen has a long and mostly glorious reputation for building classy hot hatches and it won’t deviate from this for the Mk8 family. The venerable Golf GTI is returning for its eighth iteration with a mission to tempt hot hatches to stay loyal to the genre, but it’s not taking many chances. It looks to be all about evolution rather than revolution. Air intakes will be larger and deeper to promote a sportier feel, and this Golf has is also wearing wider side sills and rims. At the rear, more skirting and larger dual echaust pipes give the game away. The regular Golf GTI returns with its familiar 2.0-litre turbo-4 now making 235 hp. It comes with a 6-speed manual gearbox or, as a cost option, a 7-speed DSG twin-clutch auto. Expect a 0-100 km/h time of 6.1 seconds, aided by a marginally lower weight and a more slippery body. Top speed is restricted to 250 km/h. The GTI Cup is a new addition to the line-up of go-faster Golfs. Inspired by the TCR derivative of the Mk7, it’s the sportiest Golf by a clear margin. It boasts the wildest aero kit, the lowest ride height, the fattest wheels and the biggest brakes, plus a differential lock to boost front-wheel drive traction. The power output is a reassuring 290 hp, and the maximum torque of 380 Nm is on tap from 1600 to 4300 rpm. Optionally, you can pay to have the top speed limiter chip removed, buying you 270 km/h. Insiders speak of a great-looking and very well made interior that includes a completely new set of instruments and controls that shuns buttons and knobs, as is the trend for bigger digital screens replacing more physical switchgear. The Golf Mk8 features a dual screen infotainment system, with the left screen taking care of the cockpit dials. It’s a similar to set-up to Mercedes’ MBUX system, except there’s a kink between the two screens, and both have a larger border than the Mercedes’. Of course, that detail could vary depending on the trim level you go for (we expect a choice of 8 inch or 10 inch digital screens, depending on spec). The Golf’s exterior is said to be modern, sleek and evolutionary with a twist. Put it this way: you won’t mistake it for anything other than a Golf. Among the most prominent styling details are much bigger, lower air intakes and 5 diamond-shaped daytime running lights. Not everybody likes the front end, which strikes some as looking like a sad face. But chief designer Klaus Bischoff tells he’s confident that when you see it on the move you’ll be struck by its freshness and presence. His CEO Herbert Diess nods in agreement. And you can be sure that the GTI will look sharper and more purposeful than more mainstream versions, which is the way it’s been since the first Golf GTI appeared in 1976. Expect the traditional red interior accents and chequered upholstery as well as the strong horizontal lines on the front. When the Golf Mk8 arrives in 2020 there will be many permutations of engine, transmission and spec, but they’ll all have 5 doors, as the Golf has not been immune to the global loss of interest in 3-door hatches. At the top of the Golf range there will be 3 distinct versions: GTI, GTI Cup and Golf R. The next Golf R is, again, powerful and composed: an über-GTI with tidier road manners and a more comprehensive specification. It shares its 335 hp turbocharged 2.0-litre 4 with the forthcoming Arteon shooting brake. The peak torque of 400 Nm is distributed to all 4 wheels via the 7-speed DSG. Expect an acceleration time of 4.3 seconds and relatively frugal fuel consumption. A 48 volt system with mild hybrid technology should be available on all 3 high-end Golfs. Each model gets its own bumper graphics and cockpit treatment, and options including 20 inch wheels, larger-diameter cross-drilled sports brakes, lowered sports suspension with adaptive dampers, an Akrapovic exhaust and a blacked-out bodykit. +++

+++ YANDEX , a Russian equivalent to Google, said it is considering expanding its fleet of self-driving cars to up to 1,000 within the next 2 years in order to speed up tests on the fledgling technology. Yandex hopes to start testing more than 100 of its self-driving cars on roads by the end of this year. It already has a fleet of 90 cars, 35 of which are being tested on Moscow’s roads with a Yandex engineer present. “We plan to further increase the fleet, by as much as even a thousand cars. We can produce the first thousand cars fairly quickly within 1,5 and 2 years”, Dmitry Polishchuk, head of Yandex’s self-driving car division, told. “This is needed to check changes quickly in the algorithms we are making”, he said. Research published by HSBC bank in January said that Yandex’s autonomous driving software put it on a par with global leaders in the technology and that it was catching up with Google’s Waymo. Yandex has not disclosed how much it has invested in self-driving technology, but Polishchuk said a single car cost 6.5 million roubles ($98,000). He said the price had fallen from the 9.5 million it had cost to build the company’s first prototype. “What’s more the car has become more technologically advanced”, he said. Yandex began working on driverless technology in 2016 and tested its first cars in 2017. The cars are currently being tested in Russia’s Skolkovo and Innopolis tech parks. The firm also obtained a licence to test driverless transport in Israel last year. Yandex, with over 30 offices globally, has been listed on the NASDAQ since 2011. Its services include food delivery and a ride-sharing business with Uber in Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia and Kazakhstan, among other countries. Polishchuk said the company was looking into the possibility of carrying out tests in the United States where he said legislation was the most progressive. +++

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